Classification of Illegal Drugs

Schedule I controlled substances

“Placement on schedules; findings required

Except … The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

(1) Schedule I.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.

(B) The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.”

No prescriptions may be written for Schedule I substances, and such substances are subject to production quotas by the DEA.

Under the DEA’s interpretation of the CSA, a drug does not necessarily have to have the same abuse potential as heroin or cocaine to merit placement in Schedule I (in fact, cocaine is currently a Schedule II drug due to limited medical use): When it comes to a drug that is currently listed in schedule I, if it is undisputed that such drug has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States and a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision, and it is further undisputed that the drug has at least some potential for abuse sufficient to warrant control under the CSA, the drug must remain in schedule I. In such circumstances, placement of the drug in schedules II through V would conflict with the CSA since such drug would not meet the criterion of “a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.” 21 USC 812(b).

Sentences for first-time, non-violent offenders convicted of trafficking in Schedule I drugs can easily turn into de facto life sentences when multiple sales are prosecuted in one proceeding.Sentences for violent offenders are much higher.

Drugs in this schedule include:

  • gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), which has been used as a general anaesthetic with minimal side-effects[citation needed] and controlled action but a limited safe dosage range. It was placed in Schedule I in March 2000 after widespread recreational use. Uniquely, this drug is also listed in Schedule III for limited uses, under the trademark Xyrem;
  • 12-Methoxyibogamine (Ibogaine), being reported to help in Heroin and other substance addiction
  • Marijuana including the Cannabis plant and its THC. Controversy exists about the placement of Marijuana in Schedule I. Like some other drugs in schedule I, there have been no reported cases of THC overdose. Main article: Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Heroin (Diacetylmorphine), which is used in some European countries as a potent pain reliever in terminal cancer patients, and as second option, after morphine. (It is about twice as potent, by weight, as morphine.). In the United Kingdom it is also prescribed to intravenous heroin addicts who have not responded to, or are unable to tolerate methadone substitution therapy.
  • Other strong opiates and opioids used in many other countries, or even in the USA in previous decades for palliation of moderate to severe pain such as nicomorphine (Vilan), dextromoramide (Palfium), ketobemidone (Ketalgin), dihydromorphine (Paramorfan), piritramide (Dipidolor), diacetyldihydromorphine (Paralaudin), dipipanone (Wellconal), phenadoxone (Heptalgin) and many others.
  • Weak opioids used for relief of moderate pain, diarrhea, and coughing such as benzylmorphine (Peronine), nicocodeine (Tusscodin), Dihydrocodeinone enol acetate, tilidine (Valoron), meptazinol (Meptid), propiram (Algeril), acetyldihydrocodeine and others.
  • Pholcodine, a weak opioid cough suppressant with negligible abuse potential[citation needed] which is available over-the-counter in many other countries.
  • MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, Ecstasy), which continues to be used medically, notably in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The medical community originally agreed upon placing it as a Schedule III substance, but the government denied this suggestion, despite two court rulings by the DEA’s administrative law judge that placing MDMA in Schedule I was illegal. It was temporarily unscheduled after the first administrative hearing from December 22, 1987 – July 1, 1988.
  • Psilocybin, the active ingredient in psychedelic mushrooms;
  • 5-MeO-DIPT (Foxy / Foxy Methoxy / 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine)
  • Lysergic acid diethylamide (“LSD” / “Acid”), formerly used in psychotherapy
  • Peyote, a cactus growing in nature primarily in northeastern Mexico; one of the few plants specifically scheduled, with a narrow exception to its legal status for religious use by members of the Native American Church;
  • Mescaline, the main psychoactive ingredients of the peyote, san pedro, achuma, and Peruvian torch cacti;
  • Methaqualone (Quaalude, Sopor, Mandrax), a sedative that was previously used for similar purposes as barbiturates, until it was rescheduled;
  • 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (STP / DOM), a psychotropic hallucinogen that rose to prominence in 1967 in San Francisco when it appeared in pill form (known as “STP”, in doses as high as four times the amounts previously considered “safe”) on the black market;
  • 2C-T-7 (Blue Mystic / T7), a psychotropic entheogen;
  • 2C-B (Nexus / Bees / Venus / Bromo Mescaline), a psychotropic hallucinogen and aphrodisiac;
  • Cathinone (β-ketoamphetamine), a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat);
  • AMT (alpha-methyltryptamine), an anti-depressant from the tryptamine family; first developed in the Soviet Union and marketed under the brand name Indopan;
  • Bufotenin (5-OH-DMT), a naturally-occurring tryptamine with hallucinogenic and aphrodisiac properties; named for the Bufo genus of toads whose poison contains the chemical;
  • Benzylpiperazine (BZP), a synthetic drug with a slight resemblance to MDMA and stimulant effects 10 times less potent than amphetamine (though it was mistakenly said to be 10 times more addictive than amphetamine at the drug’s schedule hearing)[citation needed].
  • Controlled Substance Analogs intended for human consumption (as defined by the Federal Analog Act)

Schedule II controlled substances

“Placement on schedules; findings required

Except…. The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

Schedule II.—

(A) The drug or other substances have a high potential for abuse

(B) The drug or other substances have currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, or currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions

(C) Abuse of the drug or other substances may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.”

Except when dispensed directly by a practitioner, other than a pharmacist, to an ultimate user, no controlled substance in schedule II, which is a prescription drug as determined under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], may be dispensed without the written prescription of a practitioner, except that in emergency situations, as prescribed by the Secretary by regulation after consultation with the Attorney General, such drug may be dispensed upon oral prescription in accordance with section 503(b) of that Act [21 U.S.C. 353 (b)].

Prescriptions shall be retained in conformity with the requirements of section 827 of this title. No prescription for a controlled substance in schedule II may be refilled.Notably no emergency situation provisions exist outside the Controlled Substances Act’s “closed system” although this closed system may be unavailable or nonfunctioning in the event of accidents in remote areas or disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes. Acts which would widely be considered morally imperative[citation needed] remain offenses subject to heavy penalties.

These drugs vary in potency: for example Fentanyl is about 80 times as potent as morphine. (Heroin is roughly four times as potent.) More significantly, they vary in nature. Pharmacology and CSA scheduling have a weak relationship.

Drugs in this schedule include:

  • Cocaine (used as a topical anesthetic);
  • Methylphenidate (Ritalin and Concerta) and Dexmethylphenidate (Focalin) (used in treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder);
  • Opium and opium tincture (laudanum), which is used as a potent antidiarrheal;
  • Methadone (used in treatment of heroin addiction as well as for treatment of extreme chronic pain)
  • Oxycodone (semi-synthetic opioid; active ingredient in Percocet, OxyContin, and Percodan)
  • Fentanyl and most other strong pure opioid agonists, i.e. levorphanol, opium, or oxymorphone;
  • Morphine
  • Mixed Amphetamine Salts under brand name Adderall
  • Lisdexamfetamine under brand name Vyvanse
  • Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) Dextromethamphetamine (Desoxyn)
  • Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
  • Pure codeine and any drug for non-parenteral administration containing the equivalent of more than 90 mg of codeine per dosage unit.;
  • Pure hydrocodone and any drug for non-parenteral administration containing no other active ingredients or more than 15 mg per dosage unit.;
  • Secobarbital (Seconal)
  • Pethidine (USAN: Meperidine; Demerol)
  • Phencyclidine (PCP);
  • Short-acting barbiturates, such as pentobarbital, Nembutal;
  • Amphetamines were originally placed on Schedule III, but were moved to Schedule II in 1971. Injectable methamphetamine has always been on Schedule II;
  • Nabilone (Cesamet) A synthetic cannabinoid. An analogue to dronabinol (Marinol) which is a Schedule III drug.
  • Tapentadol (Nucynta) A new drug with mixed opioid agonist and norepinepherine re-uptake inhibitor activity.

Schedule III controlled substances

“Placement on schedules; findings required

Except… . The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

Schedule III.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a potential for abuse less than the drugs or other substances in schedules I and II.

(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence.”

Except when dispensed directly by a practitioner, other than a pharmacist, to an ultimate user, no controlled substance in schedule III or IV, which is a prescription drug as determined under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], may be dispensed without a written or oral prescription in conformity with section 503(b) of that Act [21 U.S.C. 353 (b)]. Such prescriptions may not be filled or refilled more than six months after the date thereof or be refilled more than five times after the date of the prescription unless renewed by the practitioner. Control of wholesale distribution is somewhat less stringent than Schedule II drugs. Provisions for emergency situations are less restrictive within the “closed system” of the Controlled Substances Act than for Schedule II though no schedule has provisions to address circumstances where the closed system is unavailable, nonfunctioning or otherwise inadequate.

Drugs in this schedule include:

  • Anabolic steroids (including prohormones such as androstenedione);
  • Intermediate-acting barbiturates, such as talbutal or butalbital;
  • Buprenorphine;
  • Dihydrocodeine when compounded with other substances, to a certain dosage and concentration.
  • Ketamine, a drug originally developed as a milder substitute for PCP (mainly to use as a human anesthetic) but has since become popular as a veterinary and pediatric anesthetic;
  • Xyrem, a preparation of GHB used to treat narcolepsy. Xyrem is in Schedule III but with a restricted distribution system. All other forms of GHB are in Schedule I;
  • Hydrocodone / codeine, when compounded with an NSAID (e.g. Vicoprofen, when compounded with ibuprofen) or with acetaminophen (paracetamol) (e.g. Vicodin / Tylenol 3);
  • Marinol, a synthetic form of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, as well as appetite loss caused by AIDS;
  • Paregoric, an antidiarrheal and anti-tussive, which contains opium combined with camphor (which makes it less addiction-prone than laudanum, which is in Schedule II);
  • Lysergic acid amide (“LSA”), listed as a sedative but considered by some to be hallucinogenic. An inefficient precursor to and chemical relative of LSD, LSA occurs naturally in Rivea corymbosa, morning glory seeds, and Hawaiian baby woodrose seeds. LSA is not biosynthesized by the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea), but can be biosynthesized by other Claviceps geni. LSA can be present as an artifact in extracts of ergot.

Schedule IV controlled substances

“Placement on schedules; findings required

Except…. The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

Schedule IV.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.

(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule III.”

Control measures are similar to Schedule III. Prescriptions for Schedule IV drugs may be refilled up to five times within a six month period.

Drugs in this schedule include:

  • Benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam (Xanax), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium)
    • temazepam (Restoril) (Note that some states require specially coded prescriptions for temazepam)
    • flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) (Note that flunitrazepam is not used medically in the United States);
  • The benzodiazepine-like “Z-drugs”: Zolpidem (Ambien), Zopiclone, Eszopiclone, and Zaleplon;
  • Long-acting barbiturates such as phenobarbital;
  • Some partial agonist opioid analgesics, such as pentazocine (Talwin);
  • The stimulant-like drug modafinil (sold in the U.S. as Provigil) as well as its (R)-enantiomer armodafinil (sold in the U.S. as Nuvigil);
  • Antidiarrheal drugs, such as difenoxin, when combined with atropine (Motofen) (difenoxin is 2-3 times more potent than diphenoxylate, the active ingredient in Lomotil, which is in Schedule V);

Schedule V controlled substances

“Placement on schedules; findings required

Except…. The findings required for each of the schedules are as follows:

Schedule V.—

(A) The drug or other substance has a low potential for abuse relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.

(B) The drug or other substance has a currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

(C) Abuse of the drug or other substance may lead to limited physical dependence or psychological dependence relative to the drugs or other substances in schedule IV.”

No controlled substance in schedule V which is a drug may be distributed or dispensed other than for a medical purpose.

Drugs in this schedule include:

  • Cough suppressants containing small amounts of codeine (e.g., promethazine+codeine);
  • Preparations containing small amounts of opium or diphenoxylate (used to treat diarrhea);
  • Pregabalin (Lyrica), an anticonvulsant and pain modulator.
  • Pyrovalerone
  • Some centrally-acting anti-diarrhoeals, such as diphenoxylate (Lomotil) when mixed with atropine to make it unpleasant for people to grind up, cook, and inject. Difenoxin with atropine (Motofen) has been moved to Schedule IV. Otherwise the drugs are in Schedule II.

Original document from Wikipedia

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